As of the day of entry into force of the Ordinance of the Minister of Infrastructure of 19 August 2011 (Official Journal No. 188, item 1122) on a list of radio equipment to be issued without a radio licence, only telecommunications undertakings holding nation-wide general exclusive frequency licences may use GSM repeaters.
If an individual user (a natural person or a company) wants to amplify mobile network signals at the location where the telephone is used, it should request its network operator to install a dedicated device. Appropriate operation of signal repeaters depends not only on their technical parameters, but also on their location and way of installation, antenna used and set-up in configuration with active mobile base stations.
The introduction by the Minister of Infrastructure of the ban on independent use of repeaters by individuals or companies was caused by more and more frequent complaints from operators and individual owners of mobile phones about interference caused by GSM repeaters.
Illegally operating GSM repeaters cause effective interference within a 1000 meters radius, and due to the fact that as a standard they have an antenna with significant energy gain, frequently installed on building roofs, its range of interference may be much larger, reaching even up to 2400 meters.
It should be stressed that in accordance with the Telecommunications Act whoever uses a radio transmitter or a transceiver without a required licence, shall be liable to a financial penalty in the amount up to PLN 1000. If the author of the deed acts in a persistent manner, he/she shall be liable to a financial penalty, limitation of liberty or deprivation of liberty for up to 2 years.
In most European countries only telecommunications operators with general exclusive frequency licences are authorised to use GSM repeaters. In addition, in certain EU countries repeaters may be used by natural persons and companies only following a written consent of a mobile network operator.